Instruments that measure fluid flow are collectively referred to as flow meters or flow meters. The flowmeter is one of the important instruments in industrial measurement. With the development of industrial production, the accuracy and range of flow measurement requirements are getting higher and higher, and the flow measurement technology is changing with each passing day. Various types of flow meters have been introduced to suit various applications. More than 100 flow meters have been put into use. From different perspectives, flow meters have different classification methods. There are two commonly used classification methods. One is to classify according to the measurement principle adopted by the flowmeter: the second is to classify according to the structural principle of the flowmeter.
Sort by measurement principle
a. Mechanical principle:
Instruments belonging to such principles have differential pressure type, rotor type using Bernoulli's theorem;
Impulse type using the momentum theorem, movable tube type;
Direct mass equation using Newton's second law;
a target using the principle of fluid momentum;
Turbine using the angular momentum theorem;
Vortex type using vortex principle of fluid oscillation;
Use the total static pressure difference of the pitot tube type as well as volumetric and sputum, trough and so on.
b. Electrical principle:
Differential capacitor type,
Strain resistance type, etc.
c. Acoustic principle:
d. Thermal principles:
Indirect calorimetry and so on.
Vortex flowmeter working principle
The working principle of the vortex flowmeter is to arrange a vortex generator in the fluid, so that the vortex is alternately generated on both sides of the body, and the vortex column is asymmetrically arranged downstream of the vortex generator to generate a certain frequency, by the formula f= St*v/(1-1.27d/D)*d, (St is the Strauhal number, which is a dimensionless number, related to the vortex generator and Reynolds number; v is the flow velocity; d is the incident head width; D is the nominal diameter) to get the flow rate.
In general, the vortex flowmeter output signal (frequency) is not affected by changes in fluid properties and composition, which means that the meter factor is only related to the shape and size of the vortex generator and the Reynolds number. Its advantages are: simple and firm structure, convenient installation and maintenance; suitable for a variety of fluids, liquid, gas, steam and some mixed phases are applicable; high precision, generally up to ± 1% R; flow range is wide, up to 10 : 1 or 20:1 or more; low head loss; no zero drift; relatively cheap price; disadvantage: not suitable for low Reynolds number Re <20000, limited use of high viscosity, low flow rate, small diameter The requirements for the environment are high, and places with vibration should be eliminated as much as possible, and the upstream side needs to have a long straight pipe section; the meter factor is lower, and the larger the diameter, the lower the diameter. The signal resolution is reduced, so the aperture should not be too large, generally used in DN15~DN300mm.
Vortex flowmeter installation method
1. The vortex flowmeter can only be measured in one direction. The installation should pay attention to ensure that the direction of the medium flow is consistent with the direction indicated by the flowmeter arrow.
2. The best installation method of the vortex flowmeter is vertical installation, and the medium passes through the flowmeter from bottom to top. Install the flowmeter on a vertical pipe with the flow direction from bottom to top.
3. When installing horizontally, the flowmeter must be installed in the high pressure zone of the whole system and ensure the corresponding outlet pressure; do not install at the highest point of the pipeline, because the highest point is often gas accumulation, the pipeline is not full, and the outlet cannot be directly emptied.
4. When measuring high temperature fluid, try to use vertical installation; if you have to install horizontally, please install the transmitter part of the flowmeter vertically downwards or horizontally to avoid excessive temperature; pay attention to air flow at installation location Or well ventilated.
5. Straight pipe section requirements: at least 15 times the pipe diameter before the flow meter and 5 times the pipe diameter after the flow meter. If there are elbows, indents, expansions and other sources of interference in front of the flowmeter, the diameter of the flowmeter should be 30–40 times, and the diameter of the flowmeter should be 6 times. The flow meter should be installed upstream of the regulator valve, pressure or temperature sensor.
6. When installing, pay attention to the pipe diameter should be slightly larger than or equal to the inner diameter of the instrument.
7. When using the sealing ring, the inner diameter of the sealing ring should be slightly larger than or equal to the inner diameter of the instrument, and the center of the sealing ring is at the center of the pipe.