Measuring principle of electromagnetic flowmeter
The principle of electromagnetic flowmeter measurement is based on Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. The measuring tube of the flow meter is a non-magnetic alloy short tube lined with an insulating material. The two electrodes are fixed to the measuring tube through the tube wall in the tube diameter direction. The electrode tip is substantially flush with the inner surface of the liner. When the exciting coil is excited by the bidirectional square wave pulse, a working magnetic field having a magnetic flux density B is generated in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the measuring tube. At this time, if the fluid having a certain conductivity passes through the measuring tube, the cutting magnetic line induces the electromotive force E. The electromotive force E is proportional to the product of the magnetic flux density B, the inner diameter D of the measuring tube and the average velocity V. The electromotive force E (flow signal) is detected by the electrode and sent to the converter through the cable. After the converter amplifies the flow signal, it can display the fluid flow, and can output signals such as pulse and analog current for flow control and regulation.
Variable area flowmeter (equal pressure drop flowmeter)
The float placed in the upper and lower small tapered flow passages is moved by the force of the fluid flowing from the bottom to the top. When this force is balanced with the "display weight" of the float (the weight of the float itself minus the buoyancy of the fluid it receives), the capture is stationary. The height at which the float is stationary can be used as a measure of the flow rate. Since the cross-sectional area of ??the flowmeter varies with the height of the float, and the pressure difference between the upper and lower parts is equal when the float is stationary, the flowmeter is called a variable area flowmeter or an equal pressure dropmeter. A typical instrument of this type of flow meter is a rotor (float) flow meter.
A flowmeter weighing flowmeter that uses the momentum of a measuring fluid to reflect the flow rate. Since the momentum P of the flowing fluid is proportional to the density of the fluid and the square of the flow velocity v, i.e., p v2 , when the flow cross section is determined, v is proportional to the volumetric flow rate Q, so p Q2 . Set the proportional coefficient to A, then Q=A. Therefore, P is measured to reflect the flow rate Q. In this type of flowmeter, most of the flowmeters are used to convert momentum into pressure, displacement or force, and then the flow rate is measured. Typical meters for such flow meters are target and rotary wing flow meters.
Several problems of solutions
Recalculating the differential pressure scale
Temperature and pressure compensation can only reduce the measurement error, not only can not solve the problem fundamentally, but also the measurement signal exceeds 20mA, resulting in steam leakage measurement. The transmitter measurement signal exceeds 20 mA, indicating that the actual measured differential pressure signal ΔP exceeds the design differential pressure value.
Increase temperature and pressure compensation
When the temperature and pressure of the steam change, the density of the steam changes, and the steam flow measurement produces an error. Measurement error can be reduced by temperature and pressure compensation. Since the temperature of the saturated steam is a single-valued function of the pressure, the temperature and pressure compensation of the saturated steam can be pressure compensated or temperature compensated. Because the pressure signal detection is sensitive and the compensation accuracy is high, it is compensated by pressure and realized by DCS.
Steam is a special medium. As the pressure and temperature change, the density of steam changes. Therefore, it is necessary to compensate for temperature and pressure. When the pressure and temperature fluctuation of the steam are not large, that is, when the operating condition parameters deviate from the design parameters and the influence on the measurement is small, the temperature and pressure compensation measures can achieve the purpose of accurate measurement. However, when the operating parameters deviate too much from the design parameters or the operating parameters fluctuate frequently and are too large, even with the temperature and pressure compensation, it is difficult to meet the measurement accuracy requirements. At this point, only differential pressure or flow can be recalculated for a particular throttling element.