Instruments that measure fluid flow are collectively referred to as flow meters or flow meters. The flowmeter is one of the important instruments in industrial measurement. With the development of industrial production, the accuracy and range of flow measurement requirements are getting higher and higher, and the flow measurement technology is changing with each passing day. Various types of flow meters have been introduced to suit various applications. More than 100 flow meters have been put into use. From different perspectives, flow meters have different classification methods. There are two commonly used classification methods. One is to classify according to the measurement principle adopted by the flowmeter: the second is to classify according to the structural principle of the flowmeter.
Sort by measurement principle
a. Mechanical principle:
Instruments belonging to such principles have differential pressure type, rotor type using Bernoulli's theorem;
Impulse type using the momentum theorem, movable tube type;
Direct mass equation using Newton's second law;
a target using the principle of fluid momentum;
Turbine using the angular momentum theorem;
Vortex type using vortex principle of fluid oscillation;
Use the total static pressure difference of the pitot tube type as well as volumetric and sputum, trough and so on.
b. Electrical principle:
Differential capacitor type,
Strain resistance type, etc.
c. Acoustic principle:
d. Thermal principles:
Indirect calorimetry and so on.
Several problems of steam metering and their solutions
Steam is one of the important energy sources for enterprise production. It is the main heat energy for urban central heating and an important indicator for economic accounting. Therefore, the accuracy of steam metering is particularly important.
In order to solve the problem of heating for employees, the company has updated the original boiler equipment, adding 4 new boilers (2 sets of 25t/h, and another 2 sets of 35t/h). The DCS realizes the automatic control of the boiler system, and the product is saturated steam.
Analysis of problems and influencing factors
Starting from the boiler ignition operation in November 2010, the steam flow often shows the maximum value, and the differential pressure signal measured by the differential pressure transmitter exceeds 20 mA. The same is true when the load is low and the actual flow is small. In this case, steam flow measurement does not provide a safety reference for boiler operation, and it cannot be used for cost accounting.
In response to this phenomenon, the design of the project uses a V-cone flowmeter, equipped with an intelligent differential pressure transmitter, and the measurement signal is sent to the DCS for calculation and display.
ltrasonic flowmeter installation
The time difference ultrasonic flowmeter is a competitive flow measurement method in the world today, and its measurement line accuracy is higher than 1.0%. Due to the diversity of the industrial site, especially the environment around the pipeline, how to install and debug the ultrasonic flowmeter according to the specific environment has become an important topic in the field of ultrasonic flow measurement. This procedure explains the installation details of the ultrasonic flowmeter; It further fully demonstrates the advantages of accuracy, reliability and stability of the ultrasonic flowmeter, greatly reducing future maintenance work and even maintenance-free.
Ultrasonic flowmeters should be aware of the site prior to installation, including:
1. What is the distance from the host at the installation of the sensor;
2. Pipe material, pipe wall thickness and pipe diameter;
3. Year of the pipeline;
4. Type of fluid, whether it contains impurities, bubbles, and whether it is full;
5. Fluid temperature
6. Whether there is interference source at the installation site (such as frequency conversion, strong magnetic field, etc.);
7. The temperature of the four seasons at the host site;
8. Whether the power supply voltage used is stable;
9. Whether remote signals and types are required;
According to the site conditions provided above, the manufacturer can configure the site conditions and, if necessary, special models.