Choice of caliber
The choice of the diameter of the electromagnetic flowmeter is not necessarily the same as the diameter of the pipe, and should be determined by the flow rate and flow rate. However, as the chemical raw materials and intermediate liquid of Salt Lake, the viscosity is large and the flow rate is low (generally 2.0 to 4.0 m/s). The electromagnetic flowmeter is used on such a pipe, and the diameter of the sensor is the same as the diameter of the pipe. If the flow rate is lower than 1.0m/s, an electromagnetic flowmeter of appropriate flow rate can be selected to ensure measurement accuracy and relatively reduce investment.
Selection of flow rate and range
Basically, they are anti-corrosion plastic pipes, and considering the lining of the flow meter, the flow rate is generally controlled at 2m/s. For some materials that are easy to crystallize (such as sodium carbonate solution, compounding liquid: crystallized mainly boron and magnesium double salt), the flow rate is increased to 3.0 to 4.0 m/s by taking measures. The flow rate will increase the flow noise, and the vibration of the pipeline will affect the measurement accuracy. Under the condition that the electromagnetic flowmeter is installed, the shock absorber should be installed before and after. The full scale of the meter is greater than the expected maximum flow value, which is typically 1.2 times the estimated maximum flow. The normal measurement flow is greater than 50% of the full scale of the meter to ensure a certain measurement accuracy.
Ultrasonic flowmeter measurement principle
When the ultrasonic beam propagates in the liquid, the flow of the liquid will cause a small change in the propagation time, and the change in the propagation time is proportional to the flow velocity of the liquid, and its relationship conforms to the following expression.
θ is the angle between the sound beam and the direction of flow of the liquid
M is the number of linear travels of the sound beam in the liquid
D is the inner diameter of the pipe
Tup is the propagation time of the sound beam in the positive direction
Tdown is the propagation time of the sound beam in the reverse direction
Let the speed of sound in the stationary fluid be c, the velocity of the fluid flow be u, and the propagation distance be L. When the sound wave is in the same direction as the fluid flow direction (ie, the downstream direction), the propagation velocity is c+u; otherwise, the propagation velocity is cu. Two sets of ultrasonic generators and receivers (T1, R1) and (T2, R2) are placed at two places separated by L. When T1 is in the forward direction and T2 transmits ultrasonic waves in the reverse direction, the time required for the ultrasonic waves to reach the receivers R1 and R2 respectively is t1 and t2, then
Since the flow velocity of the fluid in the industrial pipeline is much smaller than the sound velocity, that is, c>>u, the time difference between the two is ▽t=t2-t1=2Lu/cc. Thus, the propagation velocity of the acoustic wave in the fluid is known. When it is known, the flow rate u can be obtained by measuring the time difference ▽t, and the flow rate Q can be obtained. The method of measuring the flow using this principle is called the time difference method. In addition, a phase difference method, a frequency difference method, or the like can be used.
Some experiences on using ultrasonic flowmeter
1. The flowmeter has two modes, diagonal and reflective. When the reflection mode is not detected, it can be measured in diagonal mode, so that we have been using the reflection mode.
2. The flowmeter requires a relatively high pipe, and the insulation layer must be scraped off, otherwise it cannot be measured. When we measured the air conditioning water system, we cut the insulation layer with a knife to prevent the sensor. After the measurement, the cut insulation layer was glued. The surface of the pipe should be as bright as possible. If it is too rough, it must be sanded.
3. It is difficult to measure when the fluid in the pipeline is not full, so the measuring position should be as straight as possible, away from elbows, valves and other places.
4. The authenticity of the flowmeter reading depends on the signal strength. When the signal is too low, the result is basically unreliable, generally more than 60% or even more.
5. Since the readings may vary greatly, the approach we take is to have the flowmeter read continuously, such as continuously recording one minute of reading and then taking the average.
6. Measuring hot water lines is more difficult than cold water lines. Because the wall temperature of the hot water pipe is high, the coupling agent is easily formed at a high temperature. In addition to the product's own coupling agent, we have tried toothpaste.
The summary of ultrasonic flowmeter measurement accuracy and accuracy needs to be improved.