The choice of electromagnetic flowmeter is mainly the correct choice of the transmitter, and the converter only needs to be matched with it.
Choice of caliber and range
The diameter of the transmitter is usually the same as that of the piping system. If the piping system is to be designed, the diameter can be selected according to the flow range and flow rate. For electromagnetic flowmeters, the flow rate is suitable for 2 - 4m / s. In special cases, such as solid particles in the liquid, in consideration of wear, the optional flow rate is ≤ 3m / s, for easy to manage the fluid. Available flow rate ≥ 2m / s. After the flow rate is determined, the transmitter diameter can be determined according to qv= D2.
The range of the transmitter can be selected according to two principles: one is that the full scale of the meter is greater than the expected maximum flow value; the other is that the normal flow is greater than 50% of the full scale of the meter to ensure a certain measurement accuracy.
Temperature and pressure selection
There are certain restrictions on the fluid pressure and temperature that the electromagnetic flowmeter can measure. When used, the pressure used must be lower than the working pressure specified by the flowmeter. At present, the working pressure specifications of domestically produced electromagnetic flowmeters are:
Less than 50mm caliber, working pressure is 1.6MPa; 900 mm caliber, working pressure is 1 MPa;More than 1000mm caliber, working pressure is 0.6MPa.
If there are special requirements on the pressure resistance of the transmitter, you can negotiate with the manufacturer.
The operating temperature of the electromagnetic flowmeter depends on the lining material used, which is generally 5 - 70 ° C. Such as special treatment, can exceed the above range, such as the wear-resistant corrosion-resistant electromagnetic flowmeter produced by Tianjin Automation Instrument No.3. The transmitter allows the measured medium temperature to be -40 to 130 °C.
Selection of lining material and electrode tree material
The lining material and electrode material of the transmitter must be correctly selected according to the physical and chemical properties of the medium. Otherwise, the instrument will be damaged quickly due to the corrosion of the lining and the electrode, and the corrosive medium will easily cause an accident if it leaks. Therefore, the electrode and the lining material must be carefully selected according to the specific measurement medium in the production process.
Ultrasonic flowmeter measurement principle
When the ultrasonic beam propagates in the liquid, the flow of the liquid will cause a small change in the propagation time, and the change in the propagation time is proportional to the flow velocity of the liquid, and its relationship conforms to the following expression.
θ is the angle between the sound beam and the direction of flow of the liquid
M is the number of linear travels of the sound beam in the liquid
D is the inner diameter of the pipe
Tup is the propagation time of the sound beam in the positive direction
Tdown is the propagation time of the sound beam in the reverse direction
Let the speed of sound in the stationary fluid be c, the velocity of the fluid flow be u, and the propagation distance be L. When the sound wave is in the same direction as the fluid flow direction (ie, the downstream direction), the propagation velocity is c+u; otherwise, the propagation velocity is cu. Two sets of ultrasonic generators and receivers (T1, R1) and (T2, R2) are placed at two places separated by L. When T1 is in the forward direction and T2 transmits ultrasonic waves in the reverse direction, the time required for the ultrasonic waves to reach the receivers R1 and R2 respectively is t1 and t2, then
Since the flow velocity of the fluid in the industrial pipeline is much smaller than the sound velocity, that is, c>>u, the time difference between the two is ▽t=t2-t1=2Lu/cc. Thus, the propagation velocity of the acoustic wave in the fluid is known. When it is known, the flow rate u can be obtained by measuring the time difference ▽t, and the flow rate Q can be obtained. The method of measuring the flow using this principle is called the time difference method. In addition, a phase difference method, a frequency difference method, or the like can be used.
Turbine Flowmeter Product Introduction
A flow meter that uses a turbine for measurement. It first converts the flow rate to the speed of the turbine and then converts the speed into an electrical signal proportional to the flow. This flow meter is used to detect instantaneous flow and total integrated flow, and its output signal is frequency, which is easy to digitize. In the figure, the induction coil and the permanent magnet are fixed together on the casing. When the ferromagnetic turbine blade passes the magnet, the magnetic resistance of the magnetic circuit changes to generate an induced signal. The signal is amplified and shaped by an amplifier and sent to a counter or frequency meter to display the total integrated flow. At the same time, the pulse frequency is frequency-voltage converted to indicate the instantaneous flow rate. The speed of the impeller is proportional to the flow rate, and the number of revolutions of the impeller is proportional to the total amount flowing. The output of the turbine flow meter is a frequency modulated signal that not only improves the immunity of the detection circuit, but also simplifies the flow detection system. It has a turndown ratio of 10:1 and an accuracy of ±0.2%. Turbine flowmeters with small inertia and small size have a time constant of 0.01 seconds.
Turbine flowmeter is the main type of velocity flowmeter. When the fluid to be measured flows through the turbine flowmeter sensor, under the action of the fluid, the impeller is forced to rotate, and its rotational speed is proportional to the average flow velocity of the pipeline. At the same time, the blade periodicity The magnetic flux generated by the electromagnet is cut and the magnetic flux of the coil is changed. According to the principle of electromagnetic induction, a pulsating potential signal, that is, an electric pulse signal, is generated in the coil, and the frequency of the electric pulsation signal is proportional to the flow rate of the fluid to be measured.